BL3.2a PES

Publications from BL3.2a

1. Dr Worawat (SUT)
"Creation and control of a two-dimensional electron liquid at the bare SrTiO3 surface"
W. Meevasana, P. D. C. King, R. H. He, S-K. Mo, M. Hashimoto, A. Tamai, P. Songsiriritthigul, F. Baumberger, Z-X. Shen
Nature Materials 10, 114-118 (2011).
2. Dr. Prayoon (SUT)
"Oxidation of Zn in UHV environment at low temperature"
Suttinart Noothongkaew, Hideki Nakajima, Anusorn Tong-on, Worawat Meevasana, Prayoon Songsiriritthigul
Applied Surface Science, Volume 258, Issue 6, 1 January 2012, Pages 1955-1957
International Vacuum Congress (IVC-18)

1. Dr. Worawat (SUT)
"Subband Structure of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Formed at the Polar Surface of the Strong Spin-Orbit Perovskite KTaO3"
P. D. C. King, R. H. He, T. Eknapakul, P. Buaphet, S.-K. Mo, Y. Kaneko, S. Harashima, Y. Hikita, M. S. Bahramy, C. Bell, Z. Hussain, Y. Tokura, Z.-X. Shen, H. Y. Hwang, F. Baumberger, W. Meevasana
Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117602 (2012).
2. Dr. Vittaya (KU)
"High intensity UV radiation ozone treatment of nanocrystalline TiO2 layers for high efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells"
Samarn Saekow, Wasan Maiakgree, Wirat Jarernboon, Samuk Pimanpang, Vittaya Amornkitbamrung
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 358, Issue 17, 1 September 2012, Pages 2496-2500

1. Dr. Worawat (SUT)
"Anomalous change in dielectric constant of CaCu3Ti4O12 under violet-to-ultraviolet irradiation"
C. Masingboon, T. Eknapakul, S. Suwanwong, P. Buaphet, H. Nakajima, S.-K. Mo, P. Thongbai, P. D. C. King, S. Maensiri, and W. Meevasana
Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 202903 (2013).
2. Dr. Chanchana (MTEC)
"A comparative investigation of a Pentacene layer on gold and PMMA in bottom-contact Pentacene thin film transistors"
Tossapol Tippo, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Hideki Nakajima, Prayoon Songsiriritthigul, Micheal Hietschold, and Apinunt Thanachayanont
Advanced Materials Research 802, 27 (2013).
3. Dr. Wan (UM)
"Effect of Transition Metal Dopant on the Optoelectronics Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Film"
S. H. Basri, N. K. Za'aba,  M. A. Mohd Sarjidan, W. H. Abd. Majid
Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, 8, 425 (2013). 
4. Dr. Wan (UM)
"One-Pot Synthesis of Ag Decorated ZnO Microsphere in Triethanolamine Media with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity"
R. Razali, M. A. Mohd Sarjidan, N. K. Za'aba, S. H. Basri, W. H. Abd. Majid
Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, 8, 431 (2013).

1. Dr. Thomas (UM)
"Enhancement of the work function of indium tin oxide by surface modification using cesium fluoride"
Thomas J Whitcher, Keat Hoe Yeoh, Yi Bin Calvin Ng, Noor Azrina Talik, Chong Lim Chua, Kai Lin Woon, Narong Chanlek, Hideki Nakajima, Thanit Saisopa, Prayoon Songsiriritthigul, Steffen Oswald and Boon Kar Yap
 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 (2013) 475102. 
2. Dr. Thomas (UM)
"High efficiency solution processed fluorescent yellow organic light emitting diode through fluorinated alcohol treatment at the emissive layer/cathode interface"
Calvin Yi Bin Ng, Keat Hoe Yeoh, Thomas J Whitcher, Noor Azrina Talik, Kai Lin Woon, Thanit Saisopa, Hideki Nakajima, Ratchadaporn Supruangnet and Prayoon Songsiriritthigul
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 015106 (2014).
3. Dr. Thomas (UM)
Determination of energy levels at the interface between O2 plasma treated ITO/P3HT:PCBM and PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM using angular-resolved x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
Thomas J Whitcher, Noor Azrina Talik, Kailin Woon, Narong Chanlek, Hideki Nakajima, Thanit Saisopa and Prayoon Songsiriritthigul
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 055109 (2014).
4. Dr. Thomas (UM)
"A practical carbon dioxide gas sensor using room-temperature hydrogen plasma reduced graphene oxide"
Syed Muhammad Hafiz, Richard Ritikos, Thomas James Whitcher, Nadia Md. Razib, Daniel Chia Sheng Bien, Narong Chanlek, Hideki Nakajima, Thanit Saisopa, Prayoon Songsiriritthigul, Nay Ming Huang, Saadah Abdul Rahman
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 193, 692-700 (2014).
5. Dr. Thomas (UM)
"The effect of carbon contamination and argon ion sputtering on the work function of chlorinated indium tin oxide"
T. J. Whitcher, K. H. Yeoh, C. L. Chua, K. L. Woon, N. Chanlek, H. Nakajima, T. Saisopa, P. Songsiriritthigul
Current Applied Physics 14, 472 (2014).
6. Dr. Rapee (SUT)
"Destabilization of LiBH4 by nanoconfinement in PMMA-co-BM polymer matrix for reversible hydrogen storage"
Rapee Gosalawit-Utke, Sukanya Meethom, Claudio Pistidda, Chiara Milanese, Daniel Laipple, Thanit Saisopha, Amedeo Marini, Thomas Klassen, Martin Dornheim
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 39, 5019-5029 (2014).

7. Dr. T. C. Ling (UM)
"The Removal of Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System"
Malcolm S. Y. Tang, T. J. Whitcher, K. H. Yeoh, C. L. Chua, K. L. Woon, P. L. Show, Y. K. Lin, and T. C. Ling
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 14, 3398 (2014).
8. Dr. Huang N. Ming (UM)
"Highly exposed {001} facets of titanium dioxide modified with reduced graphene oxide for dopamine sensing"
Gregory Thien Soon How, Alagarsamy Pandikumar, Huang Nay Ming, and Lim Hong Ngee
Scientific Report 4, 5044 (2014).

9. Dr. Huang N. Ming (UM)
"Improved Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Titanium Dioxide Composite with Highly Exposed 001 Facets and Its Photoelectrochemical Response"
Gregory S. H. Thien, Fatin Saiha Omar, Nur Ily Syuhada Ahmad Blya, Wee Siong Chiu, Hong Ngee Lim, Ramin Yousefi, Farid-Jamali Sheini, and Nay Ming Huang
International Journal of Photoenergy 2014, Article ID 650583 (2014).

10. Dr. Lek (PSU)
"Effects of precipitation temperature on the photochromic properties of h-MoO3"
Phuriwat Jittiarporn, Lek Sikong, Kalayanee Kooptarnond, and Wirach Taweepreda
Ceramic International 40, 13487 (2014).

11. Dr. Huang (UM)
"Enhanced photovoltaic performance of silver@titania plasmonic photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells"
Su Pei Lim, Alagarsamy Pandikumar, Nay Ming Huang and Hong Ngee Lim
RSC Advances 4, 38111 (2014).



Synchrotron radiation

Spectra -a synchrotron radiation calculation code- (RIKEN)
XOP -X-ray Oriented Programs- (ESRF)
SRW -Synchrotron Radiation Workshop- (ESRF)
Radiation2D (SPring-8)

Data analysis

CasaXPS Help filesyes

Surface Science Western Laboratoriesyes

Molecular Materials Research Centeryes

Surface and interface theory program (LBL)

Igor Pro






Vacuum components


Single crystal manufactures

Materials database

Chemical database




International conferences

SRI: International Conference of Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation
This is the largest conference related to the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation. The last SRI was held in New York (USA) in 2015. Next, SRI will be held at Taipei (Taiwan) in 2018.

VUVX: International Conference on Vacuum UltraViolet and X-ray Physics
This is the largest conference related to the VUV&X-ray studies. The last VUVX was held in Hefei (China) in 2013. Next, VUVX will be held at Zurich (Switzerland) in 2016.

ICESS: International Conference of Electronic Structure and Structure
This is related to the electronic structure and structure using spectroscopy techniques. The last ICESS was held at
Saint Malo (France) in 2012. Next ICESS will be held at New York (USA) in Sep. 2015.

ICV: International Vacuum Conference

ICMAT: International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (Singapore)

ICEM: International Conference on Electronic Materials

Asia and Oceania

AOFSRR: Asia and Oceania Forum of Synchrotron Radiation Research
This is a conference for researchers who utilize the synchrotron light for research in Asia and Oceania region.

National congress

STT: National Congress of Science and Technology
This is the biggest congress in science field in Thailand. It will be held annually around October.

Siam Physics Congress
This is the physics congress in Thailand. It will be held annually around March.


International conference in Thailand

Pure and Applied Chemistry International Conference at Bangkok in 2017.

Nano Thailand
This will be held during Nov. 27-29, 2016 in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.



Photoemission technique



[1]* S. D. Kevan editor: Angle-Resolved Photoemission (Elsevier Publishing Company, 1992) Chap. 2. [amazon]
[2]* E. -E. Koch editor: Handbook of Synchrotron Radiation Vol. 1B (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1983) Chap. 8 and 9.
[3]* G. V. Marr editor: Handbook of Synchrotron Radiation Vol. 2 (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1983) Chap. 9.


[1] Ph. D thesis, Dr. Supakorn Pukird, Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2002) ISBN974-533-052-3 "Photoemission study of 3d transition metals". [SUT library]
[2] Ph. D thesis, Dr. Wichuda Suraban, Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2002) ISBN974-533-248-8 "The electronic structure of the (1X1) AND (5X1) surfaces of Pt(100) studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy". [SUT library]
[3] Ph. D thesis, Dr. Wiwat Wongkokua, Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2005) "". [SUT library]
[4] Ph. D thesis, Dr. Samret Kantee, Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2005). [SUT library]
[5] Ms. thesis, Ratchadaporn Sabrueangnet, Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2006) "Si(001)-c(4x4) surface reconstruction". [SUT library]
[6] Ph. D thesis, Dr. Moragote, Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2007) "Development of the photoemission experimental station at the siam photon laboratory for ultra-thin magnetic films research". [SUT library]
[7] Ph. D thesis, Dr. Somchai, Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2007) "Study of Ni(111) with oxygen adsorption by angle-resolved photoemission". [SUT library]
[8] Ph. D thesis, Dr. Thananchai Dasri Suranaree Univesity of Technology (Physics, 2008) "Characterization of soft-x-ray undulator for the siam photon source". [SUT library]
*These are available in the SLRI library.



Check list before the application to the PES beamtime

(1) The most important thing is to submit the beamtime proposal before the deadline!
    - The safety and PI information are quite important to implement user's projects.
    - Note that all of proposals are reviewed and scored by external reviewers.
    - No proposal, no chance (except the industrial service, collaboration projects).
    - Clear description on why SR-XPS, and why not XAS, XRF, EPMA, mass spectrometry (SIMS, FABMS etc.) or XPS using AlKa?
    - The standalone XPS system is available in SUT-NANOTEC-SLRI BL5.1 XPS.

(2) Sample size must be large enough compared to the detection area.
    - XPS samples should be more than 5x5mm^2 at least. (See pictures)

    - XAS samples should be more than at least 5x5mm^2 larger than the beam size at XPS position.
    - Powders had better be attached as a pellet on carbon tape.

(3) Surface ex-situ impurities such as carbon and oxygen are negligible sometimes.
    - Handle with care on surface as clean as possible until loading sample into vacuum.
    - In-situ ion sputtering is available at XPS and PES, and PES has an sample heater.

(4) The sample surface needs to be conductive.
    - Surface must be conductive by doping or coating.

    - Charging effect might be reduced at lower photon flux, but more poor S/N.

(5) The probing target is whether surface or bulk.
    - Depth profile is required to get into bulk elements by ion sputtering method.
    - To do with ion sputtering, it is necesary to get more beamtime.

(6) The concentration of target elements in surface or bulk.
    - 1at% on surface is a detection limit in the low photon energy (BE < 100 eV).
    - To analyze the chemical states, 10% of element concentration is at least required.

(7) The binding energy of core levels and kinetic energy of Auger peaks.
    - Non overlapped spectral profile within the photon energy range (PE < 1000 eV) without sample charging condition.

    - The binding energy calibration is always required on the standard peaks or samples due to the instability of instruments.
    - The literature survey reported previously on samples by XPS may give us a great help to proceed the experiment.

(8) The chemical analysis by XPS or XAS in the total electron yield mode.
    - The standard samples are required to get information on chemical shifts.

    - XAS might be time-consuming experiment due to a slow undulator-gap changing speed.

Check list for the beamtime

(1) You need to have the ID card and radiation detector to get into our facility.
    - We are prepared for ID cards and radiation detectors for participants you described in your proposal.
    - Get ID cards and radiation detectors from the SLRI security guard in front of SLRI building (Contact the safety office if any problems).

(2) Sample must be prepared for UHV.
    - Loading samples into UHV takes at least an hour.
    - Visit the web on sample requirement.

(3) Local contacts assist your measurements.
    - Data can be served as ascii text or excel files.
    - The PES and PEEM annual workshop will be held for experts' help to data analysis.


Techniques using SR: Soft x-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES)

                                    Soft x-ray angle-integral photoemission spectroscopy (SXPS)

                                    Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the total electron yield mode (SXAS)

Applications:                Electronic structural investigation of materials

Radiation source:        A planar Halbach-type undulator (Danfysik)

Magnetic field: 0.5467 T@26.5 mm of gap
Period length: 60 mm
Number of periods: 41
Total length: 2.460 m


Photon flux at sample:    1.0 x 1010 photons/s/100 mA @E/DE ~ 10,000 (designed)


Photon energy ranges:    40 – 160, 220 – 1040 eV

G#1 (600 lines/mm) 40-160 eV
G#2 (1200 lines/mm) 220-520 eV
G#3 (2400 lines/mm) 440-1040 eV

5 keV for AES electron energy


Beam sizes in simulations:                  

Two pre-focusing mirrors are available for two point focusing.
0.2 mm (H) x 0.2 mm(V) at SXPS
0.3 mm (H) x 0.1 mm(V) at ARPES

100 micron for AES electron beam spot size




Monochromator type:      Grazing incidence varied line spacing plane grating monochromator (TOYAMA)

Sample types:                  < 8 mm x 8 mm x t1 mm @ARPES for in-situ thermal treatments

                                        < 20 mm x 20 mm x t3 mm @SXPS and SXAS

Sample environment:      In the ultra high vacuum (< 2x10-10 mbar)

Beamline status:             General user service since Mar. 2011



Facilities in the ARPES end-station

The ARPES end-station consists of the photoelectron analysis, sample preparation, rotary sample-transfer, MBE, and SMOKE chambers. Angle-resolved (VG Scienta, R4000) electron energy analyzer is installed in the photoelectron analysis chamber with the electron gun for AES (5 keV; 100 micron spot size) and LEED optics (1 keV). The sample preparation can be carried out in the sample preparation chamber, located above the photoelectron analysis chamber, with the Ar ion sputtering gun (3 keV@ion energy), electron-bombardment heater (1400K@max.), and gas-inlet variable leak valves connected with the roughing pump. A sample could be handled on the temperature-controlled manipulator down to 40 K in near future. Rotary sample transfer system (R2P2) transfers samples between the vacuum chambers without breaking UHV. The MBE chamber consists of the effusion cell, e-beam evaporator, temperature-controlled sample manipulator (1400K@max.), and RHEED optics (15 keV@electron energy). The residual gas analyzers (100 atomic mass@max) are installed in the ARPES and MBE.


Facilities in the SXPS end-station

The SXPS station consists of the angle-integral (Thermo VG Scientific, CLAM2) electron energy analyzer and Ar ion sputtering gun (3 keV@ion energy). Samples are loaded into the UHV chamber using the magnetic linear transfer rod from the first-entry air-lock system, pumped by the turbo-molecular pump, to the XPS analysis chamber, pumped by the 500 l/s ion and titanium sublimation pumps. The residual gas analyzer (100 atomic mass@max) is also available.





Note: XAS is a complementary technique with XPS to study a chemical state of elements in materials. XPS probes occupied-state electron densities excited to unoccupied states, while XAS probes unoccupied-state electron densities excited from occupied states. Both techniques are based on the free-electron-like unoccupied states to probe the occupied state electron densities. However, XPS directly probes electron energies at a fixed photon energy, so the charging and surface effects cannot be avoidable. XAS has an advantage to measure the insulating samples if the unoccupied states are almost equivalent in materials to be compared. Soft x-rays do not penetrate the beryllium window for a hard x-ray beamline, so UHV conditions at the analysis system are nessesary to measure absorption spectra involving core levels in the soft x-ray energy range such as C, N, and O K edges. Soft x-ray absorption in materials is mainly governed by Auger electron emissions resulting from a small probability on fluorescence process to release the absorbed photon energy. Therefore, the workfunction difference formed at surfaces in materials are negligible. In the "soft" XAS measurement in BL3.2a, the photon flux, energy resolving power, and polarization and surface sensitivities are much higher than those obtained in BL8. However, the soft XAS measurement is performed only in the electron yield mode, because the transmission of samples and its holder materials are quite low.





Some results on the commissioning of the undulator beamline 3.2 by gas-phase photoionization spectroscopy are shown.




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