Today, biotechnological equipment are shrinking in size, but increasing in efficiency.  Through such scientific and technological progress, we can shrink a large scientific laboratory to be so small as to be on a chip,

thus doing away with infrastructure expenses.  Researchers or laboratory workers have no need to be specialists, nor does sample analysis need to take a long time, with this reduced “laboratory on a chip.”  However mechanisms on a chip are very small, very difficult to etch, drill or even use laser beams without incurring significant damage on the surrounding area.  Thus the next step from integrated circuits (ICs) would be penetration into special polymer material to obtain 3 dimensional designs without any destruction of any material.  The designs are of the micrometer (1/1000 mm.) placed within a photo-resistant polymer through a photomask using a process called photolithography.

 

The x-ray lithography technique for creating micro-structures was developed to create the lab-on-a-chip at the 6a Beamline Laboratory Station: Deep X-ray Lithography (DXL), Siam Light Research Institute, by creating molds of micro-channels to conduct solutions to each part of the lab on the chip, reducing the size, weight and steps in sample testing and so economizing time.

Synchrotron light in the low energy x-ray region can penetrate more than 1,000 micrometers (or 1 millimeter) of photo-resistant polymer material, with up to 2 micrometers (.002 millimeter) resolution, resulting in highly exact micro-structures.

 

There are many applications of photolithography today, such as:

·       Seaweed culture on a chip cultivates the spirulina seaweed in the micro-mold, which will help reduce extensive loss of specimens.  Once suitable conditions for the environment are found, then the conditions can be incorporated in a large farm.

·       Particle counter sensor counts small particles, such as various types of blood cells.

·       Chips for separating and following cellular changes, for study of abnormal cells:  the micro-mold would select only abnormal cells for inspection and study, for subsequent treatment.

This method is called Photolithography, a means of transferring small patterns in the micrometer level (1 per 1000 millimeters) onto photo-resistant polymers through a photomask, to obtain accurate structures.  The light required must have enough energy and intensity to pass into the photo-resistant polymer material well.

Synchrotron light in the low energy x-ray region can penetrate more than 1,000 micrometers (or 1 millimeter) of photo-resistant polymer material, with up to 2 micrometers (.002 millimeter) resolution, resulting in highly exact micro-structures.

 

The x-ray lithography technique for creating micro-structures was developed to create the lab-on-a-chip at the 6a Beamline Laboratory Station: Deep X-ray Lithography (DXL), Siam Light Research Institute, by creating molds of micro-channels to conduct solutions to each part of the lab on the chip, reducing the size, weight and steps in sample testing and so economizing time.

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